Afghanistan is a landlocked country located in South Asia and Central Asia, bordered by Pakistan to the east and south, Iran to the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north. With a rich history dating back over 5,000 years, Afghanistan has been at the crossroads of civilizations, religions, and empires. From the ancient Silk Road to the modern War on Terror, Afghanistan has played a pivotal role in shaping the world.

In this blog post, we will explore Afghanistan’s history, geography, politics, governance, infrastructure, economy, demographics, social indicators, natural resources, technology, international relations, country code, leading newspaper, major problems, capital, festivals, and specialties. And we will savor the flavors of Afghan food, from kabobs to qormas.


Afghanistan has a long and complex history, with various ethnic groups, languages, religions, and cultures. The region was part of the Indus Valley Civilization, the Achaemenid Empire, the Maurya Empire, the Kushan Empire, the Sasanian Empire, the Arab Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, the Timurid Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, and the British Empire.

Afghanistan gained independence from the British in 1919 and became a constitutional monarchy. In 1978, a communist coup led to a Soviet invasion and a decade-long war. In 1992, the Taliban emerged as a Sunni Islamist group and seized power.

In 2001, the US-led coalition invaded Afghanistan and toppled the Taliban regime. Since then, Afghanistan has been struggling with insurgency, terrorism, corruption, and instability.


Afghanistan has an area of 652,864 square kilometers and a population of about 38 million. The country is divided into 34 provinces, each with its own governor and council. The capital and largest city is Kabul, with a population of about 4 million. Afghanistan’s landscape is dominated by rugged mountains, vast deserts, and fertile valleys.

The Hindu Kush range runs through the center of the country, with peaks reaching over 7,000 meters. The Amu Darya and the Panj rivers form the northern border, while the Helmand and the Kabul rivers flow through the south and east.

Map Image web link:

Politics and Governance:

Afghanistan is an Islamic republic with a presidential system of government. The current president is Ashraf Ghani, who has been in office since 2014. The parliament consists of two houses: the Wolesi Jirga (lower house) and the Meshrano Jirga (upper house). The judiciary is independent but faces challenges such as corruption, inefficiency, and lack of resources. The Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) are responsible for maintaining law and order, fighting terrorism, and protecting the country’s sovereignty.

However, they face numerous challenges such as lack of equipment, training, and coordination. Afghanistan is also grappling with corruption, with Transparency International ranking the country as one of the most corrupt in the world.

Flag image web link:

Official website:


Afghanistan’s infrastructure is underdeveloped and inadequate, due to decades of war, neglect, and poverty. The country has limited road, rail, and air transportation, with many areas inaccessible or unsafe. The electricity grid is unreliable, with frequent power cuts and blackouts. The telecommunications network is expanding, with mobile phone penetration reaching over 80 percent. The internet is also growing, with about 10 percent of the population having access. Afghanistan is rich in mineral resources, including iron, copper, gold, and lithium, but lacks the technology and investment to develop them.


Afghanistan’s economy is primarily agrarian, with over 80 percent of the population engaged in farming, herding, or fishing. The country produces crops such as wheat, corn, rice, and fruits, as well as livestock such as sheep, goats, and cattle. However, the agricultural sector is vulnerable to drought, pests, and conflict. The industrial sector is small and mainly based on handicrafts, textiles, and construction. The service sector is also limited, with tourism and banking as potential growth areas. Afghanistan’s economy is heavily dependent on foreign aid, with the US being the largest donor. The country also relies on imports for many goods, including food, fuel, and machinery. Afghanistan’s trade is hampered by insecurity, corruption, and lack of infrastructure.


Afghanistan is a diverse country, with over 14 ethnic groups and several languages. The largest ethnic group is Pashtun, followed by Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, and others. The official languages are Pashto and Dari, but many people also speak other languages such as Uzbek, Turkmen, and Balochi. The majority of the population is Sunni Muslim, with a minority of Shia Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, and Christians. Afghanistan has a high birth rate and a young population, with about half under the age of 18. The literacy rate is low, with only about 38 percent of the population able to read and write.

Social Indicators:

Afghanistan faces numerous social challenges, including poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and health problems. The country has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world, with about 110 deaths per 1,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate is also high, with about 400 deaths per 100,000 live births. The life expectancy at birth is low, with about 64 years for both males and females. Afghanistan also has a high prevalence of malnutrition, especially among children under five. The education system is underfunded and inadequate, with many schools lacking basic facilities such as classrooms, books, and teachers. Women and girls face particular barriers to education and employment, due to cultural, social, and security factors.

Natural Resources:

Afghanistan is rich in natural resources, including minerals, oil, gas, and water. The country has large reserves of iron, copper, gold, and lithium, as well as precious and semi-precious stones. The estimated value of Afghanistan’s mineral resources is over $1 trillion, which could transform the country’s economy if properly managed and developed. However, the exploitation of these resources also poses risks and challenges, such as environmental damage, social conflicts, and corruption.


Afghanistan’s technology sector is growing, but still nascent and limited. The country has limited access to electricity, internet, and other basic infrastructure, which hinders the development of technology. However, there are some promising initiatives, such as the Afghan Girls Robotics Team, which has won international awards and raised awareness of women’s empowerment and education. The government has also launched programs to promote entrepreneurship and innovation, such as the Afghan Business Innovation Fund and the Afghan National Innovation Center. The private sector is also active in the technology field, with startups and companies in areas such as software development, e-commerce, and mobile apps.

International Relations:

Afghanistan has complex and evolving relations with its neighbors and the international community. The country is located at a crossroads of Asia and has historically been influenced by various empires and powers, including Persia, the British Empire, and the Soviet Union. In recent years, Afghanistan has been a key player in the global war on terrorism and has received significant military and economic support from the US and its allies. The country also has close ties with India, Iran, Russia, and China, which have geopolitical and economic interests in the region. Afghanistan has also been a member of the United Nations since 1946 and participates in various regional organizations, such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).

Country Code: +93

Leading Newspaper:

172Afghanistan:Pajhwok Afghan News
173Afghanistan:Tolo News
174Afghanistan:Afghanistan Times

The Kabul Times (

Major Problems:

Afghanistan faces numerous challenges and problems, which are rooted in its history, geography, politics, and society.

Some of the major issues are:

  1. Security: Afghanistan is still plagued by violence, terrorism, and insurgency, which threaten the lives and livelihoods of millions of people. The Taliban and other armed groups control or contest many areas, and the Afghan security forces struggle to maintain control and protect civilians.
  2. Corruption: Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries in the world, according to various indexes and surveys. Corruption undermines governance, justice, and development, and fuels insecurity and impunity.
  3. Poverty: Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries in the world, with about 55 percent of the population living below the poverty line. Poverty is intertwined with other problems such as illiteracy, malnutrition, and health risks.
  4. Gender inequality: Afghanistan has one of the lowest levels of gender equality in the world, especially in terms of women’s education, employment, and political participation. Women and girls face discrimination, violence, and marginalization, and their rights are often violated.
  5. Environmental degradation: Afghanistan’s environment is under threat from various factors such as deforestation, desertification, water scarcity, and pollution. These challenges have negative impacts on health, agriculture, and biodiversity, and exacerbate poverty and insecurity.
  1. Security: Afghanistan has been in a state of war and conflict for several decades, with ongoing violence and attacks by the Taliban and other militant groups.
  2. Governance: Afghanistan has struggled with political instability, corruption, and weak institutions, which have hindered its development and democracy.
  3. Poverty and inequality: Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries in the world, with high levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality, particularly among women and children.
  4. Infrastructure: Afghanistan’s infrastructure, including roads, energy, and water systems, is underdeveloped and in need of significant investment and improvement.
  5. Health and education: Afghanistan’s health and education systems are inadequate, with low levels of access, quality, and resources, particularly in rural areas.


Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of over 4 million people. It is located in the eastern part of the country, in the Kabul province, and is surrounded by the Hindu Kush mountains. Kabul has a rich history and culture, and has served as a center of trade, religion, and politics for centuries. However, it has also been heavily impacted by the ongoing conflict and violence in Afghanistan.

Festival and Time and Specialty of Country:

Afghanistan has several festivals and celebrations that reflect its culture, religion, and history.

Some of the major ones are:

  1. Eid al-Fitr: This is a Muslim festival that marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. It is celebrated with feasting, prayer, and social gatherings.
  2. Eid al-Adha: This is another Muslim festival that commemorates the sacrifice of Prophet Ibrahim. It is celebrated with the sacrifice of an animal, such as a sheep or a cow, and the distribution of the meat to the poor.
  • Nowruz: This is the Afghan New Year, which falls on March 21st or 22nd. It is celebrated with the spring equinox and symbolizes new beginnings, renewal, and unity. Nowruz is a major holiday in Afghanistan and is marked by various customs and rituals such as the Haft Seen table, which includes seven items that start with the Persian letter “sin” and represent different virtues and hopes.
  • Independence Day: This is a national holiday that commemorates Afghanistan’s independence from British control in 1919. It is celebrated on August 19th and is marked by military parades, speeches, and cultural events.
  • Ashura: This is a Shia Muslim festival that commemorates the martyrdom of Imam Hussein, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad. It is observed with mourning, self-flagellation, and processions.

Afghanistan’s specialties include its traditional handicrafts such as carpets, embroidery, and ceramics, which reflect the country’s diverse cultural heritage and skills. Afghanistan is also known for its music, poetry, and storytelling traditions, which are part of its oral and literary culture. The country has produced many famous poets, musicians, and artists such as Rumi, Ahmad Zahir, and Farhad Darya.


Afghan cuisine is rich in flavors, spices, and regional variations, and reflects the country’s geography, climate, and cultural influences.

Some of the popular dishes and ingredients are:

  1. Kabuli Pulao: This is a rice dish that is usually served with lamb, raisins, carrots, and spices such as cardamom, cumin, and cinnamon. It is a signature dish of Kabul and is often served on special occasions.
  2. Mantu: This is a type of dumpling that is filled with ground beef or lamb, onions, and spices. It is usually served with a tomato-based sauce and yogurt.
  3. Ashak: This is another type of dumpling that is filled with leeks, scallions, and spices. It is served with a garlic and yogurt sauce.
  4. Kofta: This is a type of meatball that is made with ground beef or lamb, onions, and spices. It can be served with a tomato-based sauce, yogurt, or naan bread.
  5. Bolani: This is a type of stuffed flatbread that is filled with potatoes, onions, and spices. It is often served with a yogurt and cilantro sauce.
  6. Qabili Palau: This is a rice dish that is similar to Kabuli Pulao but is made with additional ingredients such as carrots, raisins, and almonds. It is a popular dish in the northern and western regions of Afghanistan.

In conclusion,

Afghanistan is a country with a rich and complex history, diverse geography, and challenging present. Despite the many problems and obstacles, the country has shown resilience, creativity, and potential, and has a unique culture and heritage that deserves to be explored and appreciated. By understanding Afghanistan’s past, present, and future, we can contribute to its development, peace, and prosperity.

Web links and resources:

  1. History of Afghanistan:
  2. Geography of Afghanistan:
  3. Map of Afghanistan:
  4. Flag of Afghanistan:
  5. Official website of the Afghan government:
  6. Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund:
  7. Afghanistan Central Bank:
  8. Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook:
  9. Afghanistan National Development Strategy:
  10. Leading newspaper: The Daily Outlook Afghanistan (

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